All Scientists are Sceptics ~Professor Bob Carter

Whenever someone asserts that a scientific question is “settled,” they tell me immediately that they don’t understand the first thing about science. Science is never settled. Dr David Deming

Perhaps the most frustrating aspect of the science of climate change is the lack of any real substance in attempts to justify the hypothesis ~Professor Stewart Franks

A lie told often enough becomes the truth.
-- Vladimir Ilyich Lenin - See more at: http://thepeoplescube.com/lenin/lenin-s-own-20-monster-quotes-t185.html#sthash.aTrSI3tG.dpuf
A lie told often enough becomes the truth.
-- Vladimir Ilyich Lenin - See more at: http://thepeoplescube.com/lenin/lenin-s-own-20-monster-quotes-t185.html#sthash.aTrSI3tG.dpuf
A lie told often enough becomes the truth.
-- Vladimir Ilyich Lenin - See more at: http://thepeoplescube.com/lenin/lenin-s-own-20-monster-quotes-t185.html#sthash.aTrSI3tG.dpuf

Wednesday, 7 January 2015

Pessimistic projections of the world's climate Alarmists will likely never come to pass.

Two things some of the public do not know.

  1. The Oceans are NOT turning to acid;
  2. Coral Reefs are NOT endangered by AGW.

John Spooner: Taxing Air

Ocean Acidification: The Oceans are NOT turning to acid. As Bob Carter puts it in his great book Taxing Air:


No, the oceans have always been alkaline and will remain so, despite any minor decrease in alkalinity caused by the absorbtion of extra carbon dioxide 
Acidity and alkalinity characterise the nature of chemicals dissolved in water. At extremes both are important because, in their different ways, acid and alkaline solutions are corrosive. Acids are characterised by a surplus of hydrogen (H+) ions whereas alkalines are characterised by a surplus of hydroxyl (OH-) ions.35 
Coral Reefs: Again from Taxing Air:

Scientific studies published by Dr David Barnes and others in 2000 in the Journal of Experimental Marine Biology show that a statistically significant 4% increase in coral growth occurred on the GBR during the warming of the 20th century. More recent and detailed monitoring data collected by other staff of the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) in Townsville es- tablished that:

data collected annually from fixed sites at 47 reefs across 1300 km of the GBR indicate that overall regional coral cover was stable (averaging 29% and ranging from 23% to 33% cover across years) with no net decline between 1995 and 2009. 
 A Peer reviewed paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, Comeau et al. (2014a) write that in spite of "pessimistic projections forecasting the disappearance of most coral reefs before the end of the current century," a compilation of laboratory studies produced by Chan and Connolly (2013) suggests it is more likely that "coral calcification will decline approximately 10-20% (rather than ceasing) for a doubling of present-day partial pressure of CO2." In addition, they note that "more subtle responses to ocean acidification [OA] have also been shown in recent studies reporting signs of resistance to OA for some reef calcifiers," citing the work of Takahashi and Kurihara (2013), Comeau et al. (2013) and Comeau et al. (2014b). And they add that "field observations at underwater CO2 vents in Papua New Guinea and sites with high seawater pCO2 in Palau have also shown that some reef calcifiers can persist in naturally acidified conditions," referencing the studies of Fabricius et al. (2011) and Shamberger et al. (2014). 

In their own study of two coral taxa and two calcifying algae - which they conducted in Moorea (French Polynesia), Hawaii (USA) and Okinawa (Japan) - Comeau et al. found that for three of the four calcifiers "there was no effect of pCO2 on net calcification" at any of the three locations, which led them to suggest that this finding "may represent a constitutive and geographically conserved capacity to resist some of the effects of OA." And, therefore, evidence continues to accumulate in support of the view that the vast bulk of the pessimistic projections of the world's climate alarmists relative to future ocean acidification effects on calcifying organisms will likely never come to pass.(CO2 Science)

Citation:
Comeau, S et al. (2014): Pacific-wide contrast highlights resistance of reef calcifiers to ocean acidification. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.832834,
Supplement to: Comeau, Steeve; Carpenter, Robert C; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Putnam, H M; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Edmunds, Peter J (2014): Pacific-wide contrast highlights resistance of reef calcifiers to ocean acidification. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences281(1790), 20141339-20141339, doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.1339
Moorea

Abstract:
Ocean acidification (OA) and its associated decline in calcium carbonate saturation states is one of the major threats that tropical coral reefs face this century. Previous studies of the effect of OA on coral reef calcifiers have described a wide variety of outcomes for studies using comparable partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) ranges, suggesting that key questions remain unresolved. One unresolved hypothesis posits that heterogeneity in the response of reef calcifiers to high pCO2 is a result of regional-scale variation in the responses to OA. To test this hypothesis, we incubated two coral taxa (Pocillopora damicornis and massive Porites) and two calcified algae (Porolithon onkodes and Halimeda macroloba) under 400, 700 and 1000 µatm pCO2 levels in experiments in Moorea (French Polynesia), Hawaii (USA) and Okinawa (Japan), where environmental conditions differ. Both corals and H. macroloba were insensitive to OA at all three locations, while the effects of OA on P. onkodes were location-specific. In Moorea and Hawaii, calcification of P. onkodes was depressed by high pCO2, but for specimens in Okinawa, there was no effect of OA. Using a study of large geographical scale, we show that resistance to OA of some reef species is a constitutive character expressed across the Pacific.

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