Friday, 28 September 2012

What the Frakk is the drilling process?

Matt Damon stars in a new Movie called: "The Promised Land." It is about the controversial process of frakking.

It is about agricultural land being used for mining, it is about agricultural land dying.

A few quotes from the Movies:

My Farm is gone! It Just turned brown…and it died.

We’re not fighting for land, Steve. We’re fighting for people.

This town; this life; it’s dying.

Wednesday, 26 September 2012

It's the Sun, Stupid

The Hockey Schtick (link)

New paper shows how natural changes in ozone may drive climate

A important paper published today in the Journal of Geophysical Research finds that large quantities of ozone [O3], a "major greenhouse gas," are being produced naturally by an increase in lightning activity "caused by the influx of aerosols from a volcano." According to the authors, "Our findings thus suggest a stronger O3 historical radiative forcing because this link implies lower lightning-generated [nitrous oxide] and lower O3, especially in the upper troposphere, in preindustrial time. Aerosol forcing therefore has a warming component via its effect on O3 production and this component has mostly been ignored in previous studies of climate forcing related to O3 and aerosols." Prior research has shown that large variations in solar UV activity also control ozone production and that ozone levels could be the main driver of recent climate. Once again, natural variability including changes in ozone, solar and volcanic activity have been shown to be important drivers of clmate. 

Read more Here (link)

Glaciers gain Growth

CO2 Science reports on a paper published in Nature Geoscience 5

Slight mass gain of Karakoram glaciers in the early twenty-first century

Image: Live Science.
Gardelle, J., Berthier, E. and Arnaud, Y. 2012. Slight mass gain of Karakoram glaciers in the early twenty-first century. Nature Geoscience 5: 322-325. 

In a world where glaciers are believed to be shrinking almost everywhere, the authors note that at the west end of the Himalayan arc, where China, India and Pakistan meet, "an anomalous gain of mass has been suggested for the Karakoram glaciers," citing the findings of Hewitt (2005) - who first wrote about the "Karakoram anomaly" - as well as the subsequent studies of Zemp et al. (2009), Cogley (2011) and Scherler et al. (2011).

 The three scientists calculated the regional mass balance of the glaciers between 1999 and 2008 and then supported their findings they write that "recent glacier expansion (Hewitt, 2005) and speed-up over the region (Quincey et al., 2009; Heid and Kaab, 2011) tally with the gain of mass calculated in this study."  

Read more at CO2 Science.

What it means
Gardelle et al. conclude by stating that their measurements "confirm an anomalous mass balance in the Karakoram region and indicate that the contribution of Karakoram glaciers to sea-level rise was -0.01 mm/year for the period from 1999 to 2008," or "0.05 mm/year lower than suggested before." As for how this complete change of direction in the perceived mass balance history of the Karakoram glaciers could have occurred, Cogley (2012) writes - in a contemporaneous commentary on the work of Gardelle et al. - that "by a quirk of the atmospheric general circulation that is not understood, more snow is being delivered to the mountain range at present, and less heat," which leads one to wonder if there might well be a whole lot of things that are "not understood" about earth's climate ... by even the most brilliant of the world's scientists.

Read more at CO2 Science. (link)

The same issue of   Nature Geoscience 5  includes another paper under the heading:

Glaciology: No ice lost in the Karakoram (link)

Tuesday, 25 September 2012

The Mad, Mad, Mad World of Climatism

The Mad, Mad, Mad World ofClimatism
As reported by Tom Harris of the International Climate Science Coalition:


The Mad, Mad, Mad World of Climatism, by Steve Goreham, Executive Director of the Climate Science Coalition of America (CSCA).

Is it true that:
• By changing our light bulbs, we can save polar bears?
• By driving electric cars, we can stop the seas from rising?
• By building wind turbine towers, we can make the hurricanes less severe?

It’s all part of this Mad, Mad, Mad World of Climatism.  But the good news is that, contrary to what our newspaper, our professor, and our political leader tells us, global warming is natural and cars are innocent.

The first book on climate change that is fun to read!

Germany turns to coal fired power

As reported by Bloomberg:
Image: Google Images
Germany’s largest utilities RWE and EON AG (EOAN) are shunning cleaner-burning natural gas because it’s more costly, while the collapsing cost of carbon permits means there’s little penalty for burning coal. Wind and solar projects, central to Germany’s plans to reduce nuclear energy and cut the release of heat- trapping gases, can’t produce electricity around the clock.
How far will the carbon credits collapse before Australia links to them?
Germany’s increasing coal consumption is part of a global return to the fossil fuel that’s cheaper than most alternatives.
Why then does Australia have  ner to the costliest power in the world?

POWER TRIP: Australian electricity price high, and to rise with carbon tax. (Link)

  • Charges 70 per cent higher than the American average
  • A figure that will grow to 160 per cent in two years
  • Exposes myth that Australian electricity is relatively cheap
h/t Benny Peiser

Sunday, 23 September 2012

Sustainable Farming - the Impossible Dream

Sustainable Farming
-     the Impossible Dream

by Viv Forbes
"Carbon Sense": 20 September 2012.

A print-ready copy of this issue of "Carbon Sense" can be downloaded from:

Please spread this email around.

"To be truly 'sustainable', a farm must recycle everything - otherwise it is depleting its soil minerals. Therefore it cannot sell any of its produce. This means it cannot buy items from the outside world, such as machinery, to make labour less arduous, and to produce more food. It is thus an impossible dream."

Bob Long

The man-made global warming crisis has gone cold, the "man-made extreme weather" scares are wearing thin, and people are waking up to the "tax war on carbon", so a new theme is needed for handing control of our lives, businesses and property to the world bureaucracy. The theme for the next green alarm is "sustainability" and a favourite target is "sustainable farming".

We need to recognise some realities. Modern cities are not sustainable without farms, and modern farms are not sustainable without modern machinery, mineral fertilisers and affordable energy.

Are Cities Sustainable?

City people should thank the Lord for the machinery, fertiliser and cheap energy that produce the surplus food and all the trucks, road trains, refrigerated vans and milk tankers that bring it to their supermarkets every day. The last thing they should advocate is "sustainable farming".

Meat for the Cities 
Road Trains loading cattle from
Helen Springs Station Northern Territory, Australia.

Unlike most armchair experts on sustainable farming, my early life was spent on an almost-sustainable farm. The memorable lessons we learned are described below.

Cows were milked by hand, ploughing and planting was done with a team of draft horses. Here is how green power works (except we should have used a wooden plough):
Ploughing using Hay-burnersPhoto Credit:  (c) Kapai /
Lucerne was cut using a horse-drawn mower and rake. Haymaking on our “almost sustainable” farm was a family affair when everyone got a job with a pitchfork – mine had a special short handle. I still have it. Here is how it was done.

Making Bio-fuel for Hay Burners

Photo credit:

For a full description of how a sustainable farm really works you can quickly download the full article in print-ready pdf at:

 Retreat to the Past

The deaths of Steve Jobs and Neil Armstrong could signal the end of a remarkable era of scientific and engineering achievement that started about 200 years ago when James Watt and Robert Stephenson managed to harness coal-fired steam power to drive engines and locomotives. This was followed by magic like electricity, diesel engines, nuclear power, the Model T, jet aircraft and the Apple 2.

During that era of innovation, we progressed from horse and buggy to supersonic flight; from semaphore to smart phone; from wood stoves to nuclear power; from the abacus to the PC; from flickering candles to brilliant light at the flick of a switch; and from wind-jammers sailing to the New World to rocket-ships landing on the Moon.

That era of curiosity and innovation brought prosperity, longevity and a richer life to millions of people while creating the surpluses of food, energy and savings for investment that allowed them to take better care of their environment. It also gave the free world the ability and tools to defend itself from aggressive dictators in two World Wars and the Cold War.

We are now living in the after-glow of that era, relying on past achievements and investments while Green doom-mongers are allowed to scare our children and reject our heritage. “We must not experiment, nor try new things”, they say – just in case something goes wrong.

What will today's "Green Generation" be remembered for?

Already they have re-discovered wind power, wood energy and electric cars that were tried and largely rejected a century ago; they now encourage the production of once-banned ethanol corn whiskey, but waste it on cars; they spurn the energy potential of nuclear, coal, oil and gas; and they would close our airports and lock up our resources whilst developing computerised spy-ware to record, regulate, ration and tax our usage of everything.

And one branch of NASA, the once-great risk-taking scientific and engineering body that put Neil Armstrong on the moon, is now supporting an anti-carbon anti-industry cult that advocates the closure of the whole coal industry from mine to power station.

The legacy of today's doom-mongers will be measured by the number of dams not built, the number of mines, factories, farms, forests and fishing grounds closed and the number of humans starving or living in poverty.

Like the emperors of the Nero era in ancient Rome, they celebrate their destructive achievements by staging expensive Climate Circuses, while behind closed doors they plot to destroy the last vestiges of the freedom and property rights that allowed past generations to "Reach for the Stars".

The slogan of the coming era should be "Retreat to the Past".

So vale Neil Armstrong and Steve Jobs - we are losing far more than most people realise.

(For a look at the achievements of the Green Generation, have a look here at how their $250 billion investment in “Renewable” energy is panning out:

Those funds they have spent are not renewable. They were wasted on unproductive junk.

Climatists not Fair Dinkum?

A "greenhouse gas" is one capable of absorbing infra-red (IR) radiation.

The most common atmospheric gases with such properties are water vapour and carbon dioxide (CO2). Water vapour is far more abundant with an average of 20,000 parts-per-million (ppm) in the atmosphere compared to just 395 ppm of CO2. Moreover water vapour is more effective as a greenhouse gas because it can absorb IR radiation over far more bands of the IR spectrum.

Therefore, if man-made CO2 causes dangerous global warming, (a dubious proposition anyway), then man-made water vapour is far more dangerous.

The two main electricity generation fuels in Australia are coal and gas. Coal is a dense fuel with a high carbon content which, when burnt, produces mainly CO2 with some water vapour. Natural gas has more hydrogen and less carbon and produces a higher proportion of water vapour, the main greenhouse gas.

Thus if the climate alarmists are really scared of man-made greenhouse gases, they should be promoting coal instead of gas or systems that need 100% gas backup, such as wind. Gas generates copious quantities of both “greenhouse gases”.

And if they believe a tax on man-made greenhouse gases will control the climate, a tax on steam makes more sense than a tax on carbon dioxide.

Finally, if they want "zero emissions" of either greenhouse gas, the only significant energy sources that qualify are nuclear, hydro and geothermal. Naturally the only one unlikely to prove widely useful in Australia, geothermal, is the only one promoted by the greens.

Maybe the climatists are not fair dinkum?

Or maybe the whole man-made global warming scare is an unscientific fraud?

(For a look at how well the IPCC forecasts of dangerous man-made global warming are working out see here:

The Last Word 
“Why have we not noticed effects of the carbon tax? 
- they planned it that way.”
It was foolish of some politicians to give the impression that there would be dramatic consequences on Day 1of the carbon tax era. The Green Coalition now governing Australia is dangerous and destructive, but they are not stupid. Their goal for this session of Parliament was to entrench the carbon tax quietly onto our law books and into our psyche. So they planned carefully to have no dramatic consequences for carbon tax opponents to latch onto. The method was to over-compensate most consumers with handouts, exempt most producers from tax liabilities, provide free emission credits liberally and then back off from some of the extreme demands and high tax rates. Nothing can be allowed to rock the boat until the next election is over. Then the screws can be tightened slowly.

All of the jobs losses, industry closures and deferments, and increasing costs for power and food will occur, but slowly so no one will notice that they all have a common cause. And in electricity costs, many of the costs of the climate change policies occurred BEFORE the carbon tax was introduced.

And it is not just the carbon tax we should fear. For example, the Twitter Generation will blame “Climate Change” for the coming food shortages. Climate change has always affected food production. But droughts do end, floods do recede and farmers always recover from natural weather extremes. But “Climate Change Policies” will cause a continuing food crisis. And unlike real droughts and floods, this crisis will not end with a change in the weather. The destruction of our ability to produce food by ethanol subsidies and mandates, Kyoto scrub clearing bans, carbon credit forests and the creeping paralysis of “protected land, heritage and habitat” will have a far more insidious effect.

Listen to the story below of how the Yuppie Clothing Corporation, R M Williams, is benefitting itself at the expense of struggling Qantas by destroying our ability to produce beef. Ask yourself – “Can we continue this foolishness forever?”

                                                            Get Adobe Flash player     

The alarmists are still alive in Parliament. We may even see Rudd in the red corner and Turnbull in the blue corner, supported by their ranks of academic mercenaries, all promoting an emissions trading scheme. We are pawns in this battle. But anyone who plays chess knows that you cannot stop an attacking pawn, and he never retreats – you can only kill him. We and a few other lonely skeptic pawns will continue to oppose these destructive and pointless climate policies. Please help us spread the word. If you do nothing else, copy and distribute “The Last Word” with the link to this hard hitting video clip.

Authorised by:
Viv Forbes
Rosevale    Qld    Australia

PS We have had three weeks of electronic chaos because someone sent us a virus which killed our main computer. We may have lost some members and may be sending to some who have asked to “Unsubscribe”. If so, apologies in advance, and please let us know again. Pls also make sure we are an "allowed sender", or check your "Junk Mail" folder. And let us know when you change your email address.

“Carbon Sense” is a newsletter produced by the Carbon Sense Coalition, an Australian based organisation which opposes waste of resources, opposes pollution, and promotes the rational and sustainable use of carbon energy and carbon food.
Please spread “Carbon Sense” around.
For more information visit our web site at
Literary, financial or other contributions to help our cause are welcomed.
Chairman Viv Forbes MS 23, Rosewood   Qld   4340   Australia.
To Unsubscribe send a reply with “Unsubscribe” in the subject line.

How to Create an Intermittent and Costly
Electricity Supply Industry.

“Large wind farms are being built to take advantage of subsidies, mandated market shares, guaranteed prices and/or government contracts. But because the wind always supplies intermittent energy, everything else on the power grid is forced to also become intermittent. It happens this way:

“When the wind blows, the incremental cost of electricity produced is zero and wind power therefore forces other higher cost generators to temporarily close. They also become intermittent suppliers. This results in costly capital assets earning insufficient revenue to cover debt servicing and standby costs. Investors hesitate to build new facilities, so the supply industry itself risks becoming intermittent because of brownouts or blackouts.

“Once we have intermittent supply it must be matched by “intermittent demand” – some consumers will find their power rationed or shut off by smart meters. 
Welcome to the cold, dark, green world.”
Viv Forbes -
I acknowledge Professor Dieter Helm, Professor of Energy Policy at Oxford University, for his insight on how wind power spreads its intermittency germ throughout the electricity supply industry. Reported in CCNet 17/9/2012.

Wednesday, 19 September 2012

More Peer reviewed Papers against the IPCC AGW Hoax

See Previous posts on this blog, but here are a few more:

  1. New paper shows negative feedback from clouds 'may damp global warming'

  2. New paper finds Earth's highest recorded temperature was in 1913 instead of 1922 

  3. New paper shows warming causes decreased extreme weather

1: New paper shows negative feedback from clouds 'may damp global warming'

 From Hockey Schtick: (link)

A paper published today in The Journal of Climate uses a combination of two modelling techniques to find that negative feedback from clouds could result in "a 2.3-4.5% increase in [model projected] cloudiness" over the next century, and that "subtropical stratocumulus [clouds] may damp global warming in a way not captured by the [Global Climate Models] studied." This strong negative feedback from clouds could alone negate the 3C alleged anthropogenic warming projected by the IPCC.  

Read More here

2: New paper finds Earth's highest recorded temperature was in 1913 instead of 1922 

From Hockey Schtick: (link)

According to a paper published today in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, the world record highest temperature extreme of 56.7°C (134°F) was actually during 1913 in Death Valley, CA, rather than in 1922 in Libya. Paradoxically, both recordings occurred when CO2 was "safe."

Read More here

3: New paper shows warming causes decreased extreme weather 

From Hockey Schtick: (link)

In the words of Trouet et al. (2012), "an increasing number of high-resolution proxy records covering the last millennium have become available in recent years, providing an increasingly powerful reference frame for assessing current and future climate conditions." 

Given (their)  findings, for this particular portion of the planet, it should be very clear that relative coolness, as opposed to relative warmth, typically leads to more extreme storms, which is just the opposite of what the world's climate alarmists continue to contend.

Read More here




Record HIGH Antarctic Sea Ice - New Paper

Image: NSIDC.
A new paper in early on-line release by the Journal of Climate:

An Initial Assessment of Antarctic Sea Ice Extent in the CMIP5 Models (Link)

John Turner, Tom Bracegirdle, Tony Phillips, Gareth J. Marshall, and J. Scott Hosking
British Antarctic Survey, National Environment Research Council, Cambridge, UK

The Hockey Schtick examines the paper: (link)

Antarctic sea ice reaches record high while IPCC models predicted the opposite

A recent paper in the Journal of Climate finds that most climate models erroneously predict that Antarctic sea ice extent decreased over the past 30 years, which "differs markedly from that observed."  As noted in the abstract, Antarctic sea ice has confounded the models by instead increasing over the satellite era. In fact, it is currently at a record extent that is more than 2 standard deviations above the 1979-2000 average. The authors lament, "The negative [Antarctic sea ice] trends in most of the model runs over 1979 - 2005 are a continuation of an earlier decline, suggesting that the processes responsible for the observed increase over the last 30 years are not being simulated correctly."


We examine the annual cycle and trends in Antarctic sea ice extent (SIE) for 18 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 models that were run with historical forcing for the 1850s to 2005. Many of the models have an annual SIE cycle that differs markedly from that observed over the last 30 years. The majority of models have too small a SIE at the minimum in February, while several of the models have less than two thirds of the observed SIE at the September maximum. In contrast to the satellite data, which exhibits a slight increase in SIE, the mean SIE of the models over 1979 - 2005 shows a decrease in each month, with the greatest multi-model mean percentage monthly decline of 13.6% dec-1 in February and the greatest absolute loss of ice of -0.40 × 106 km2 dec-1 in September. The models have very large differences in SIE over 1860 – 2005. Most of the control runs have statistically significant trends in SIE over their full time span and all the models have a negative trend in SIE since the mid-Nineteenth Century. The negative SIE trends in most of the model runs over 1979 - 2005 are a continuation of an earlier decline, suggesting that the processes responsible for the observed increase over the last 30 years are not being simulated correctly.

Yet another paper - MWP warmer than current warming!

Seebergsee (Switzerland)
From CO2 Science (link)

A new peer reviewed paper published in Quaternary Science Reviews 41 (Link) is yet another nail in the MBH98 HockeyStick's coffin. The authors Larocque-Tobler et al found that the Medieval Warm Period - or as they refer to it - the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly' (MCA) was warmer than the temperatures in the  last century.


Determining if temperatures of the last century exceed natural variability necessitates the use of high-resolution paleo-reconstructions extending beyond the instrumental data (i.e. >150 years). Although syntheses using tree-ring, stalagmite, and borehole based reconstructions are available, biological proxies preserved in lake sediments have been neglected as a source of high-resolution information on climate change. Here, we present a decadal-scale mean July air temperature reconstruction covering the past millennium from varved Seebergsee, Switzerland. This reconstruction is compared to instrumental data at local, regional and European scales, to another high-resolution chironomid-inferred temperature reconstruction from Lake Silvaplana (Switzerland), to a composite of paleo-climate reconstructions from the Greater Alpine Region and to various millennial scale climate reconstructions from the northern hemisphere. When compared to local and regional instrumental records since ca 1760 AD significant (p < 0.01) relationships (rPearson > 0.5) are obtained, suggesting that chironomids accurately register the changes in temperature for the past ca 250 years. At European scale, the Seebergsee reconstruction correlates (rPearson = 0.40; p < 0.01) with instrumental and early instrumental data back to 1500 AD. On the millennial time scale, the chironomid reconstruction of Seebergsee provides a pattern of temperature changes mirrored by the chironomid reconstruction from Silvaplana (rPearson = 0.44; p < 0.01) and the Greater Alpine Region composite of reconstructions (rPearson = 0.40; p < 0.01). This includes warmer-than-the-last-century mean July air temperatures (+1.2 °C on average) during the end of the “Medieval Climate Anomaly” (MCA) and colder-than-the-last-century temperatures (−0.5 °C on average) during the “Little Ice Age”. Both chironomid reconstructions inferred a warming during the last decades, but this chironomid-inferred warming does not exceed the MCA temperatures. This result is not singular as many millennial temperature reconstructions in the northern Hemisphere do not show unprecedented warming of the last century at local/regional scale. However, the chironomid assemblages found in Seebergsee and Silvaplana since ca 1950 AD seem to be unique (i.e. they show unprecedented assemblage compositions) for the past 1000 years.

Larocque-Tobler, I., Stewart, M.M., Quinlan, R., Traschel, M., Kamenik, C. and Grosjean, M. 2012. A last millennium temperature reconstruction using chironomids preserved in sediments of anoxic Seebergsee (Switzerland): consensus at local, regional and Central European scales. Quaternary Science Reviews 41: 49-56.  

What was learned
The six scientists' work revealed that the peak warmth of the MCA just prior to AD 1200 was approximately 0.9°C greater than the peak warmth near the end of their record, as best we can determine from the graph of their data.

What it means
As more and more palaeo-temperature data are acquired, the IPCC-endorsed "hockeystick" temperature record of Mann et al. (1999) - which gives little indication of the existence of the MCA and shows recent temperatures towering over those of that earlier time period - is fading slowly into the night, as it is repudiated by ever more real-world data. And it's not just the most recent data of Larocque-Tobler et al. that refute the IPCC's view of this matter; for the group of six says that their newest temperature history is "mirrored by the chironomid reconstruction from Silvaplana and the Greater Alpine Region composite of reconstructions." And they add that "several other reconstructions from the Northern Hemisphere also show [recent] warm inferred temperatures that were not as warm as the MCA."

CO2 Science adds:
In addition, and it's a big addition, we note that many more palaeoclimatic studies from all around the world - which are described and have their results tabulated in our Medieval Warm Period Project - likewise testify to the greater-than-current peak-warmth of the MCA.


Tuesday, 18 September 2012

Alarmists get great news but spit vitriol.

Image: C3 Headlines
You would think that the alarmists would be cheering. The good news keeps coming.

First - CO2 Emissions down:

The US carbon dioxide emissions have declined for four of the last six years.

Declined! (Alarmists cheering heard in background?)

From the Consumer Energy Report: (Link)
The United State Energy Department announced this week that carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy production declined in the country in 2011, the third time in four years and fourth time in six years that this has been the case.

The Energy Department measured a 2.4 percent drop in energy-related carbon dioxide emissions last year, most of it due to the slower economy than any “green” measures, though the department’s report did note that energy produced via natural gas increased by 3 percent, while energy produced from coal decreased by 6 percent. (See also: Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions — Facts and Figures)
Second - Planet temperatures down:

The planet has been cooling since 1997. (Alarmists give wild rebel yells and champagne corks pop across the planet?)

C3 Headlines (link)

Global Cooling Since 1997 - The IPCC Global Warming Prediction Due To CO2 Emissions Was Wrong, Spectacularly

The IPCC predicted that global warming would result from increased atmospheric CO2 levels - however, since the beginning of the 1997 Super El Nino, global cooling has been the result.

The RSS satellite global temperature measurements indicate that the 1997-98 Super El Niño started from the low of April 1997. From that point, and all the way through July 2012, the global atmosphere has cooled - a total of 184 months. 
Therefore we should be hearing outburst of applause and cheering from the alarmists.

Do you hear them?

No?  Why not?

James Taylor writing for Forbes explains why: (link)

Global Warming Alarmists Seek More Power, Not Emissions Reductions

As U.S. carbon dioxide emissions continue to decline, one would think global warming alarmists would celebrate the ongoing achievement. Instead, alarmists are ramping up their vitriol. The alarmists’ increasing vitriol reveals that for many alarmists, the true goal is not a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, but instead a transfer of wealth and power from individuals to government.
Why is it that so many alarmists are ratcheting up their vitriol and hateful rhetoric precisely when U.S. carbon dioxide emissions are rapidly declining? The answer is the alarmists are motivated more by a desire to reshape society into a government-centered model than they are interested in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Emissions are rapidly declining, yet money and power remains largely with the people rather than the government. Accordingly, activists ratchet up their hateful rhetoric.

For those who truly care about reducing carbon dioxide emissions, now is a time for celebration. For those who truly care about transferring money and power to government, now is a time to intensify their attacks.

Read more at C3 here and Forbes here.

UPDATE: More Good News


That’s ½ million square kilometers more ice than average – Where are the breathless headlines?

193,000 square miles – That’s the size of Vermont, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Virginia and Maryland combined.