The sun is one astronomic unit, or about 93 million miles from Earth. The sun is surrounded by the heliosphere comprised of material expelled from the sun with magnetic qualities, and with charged particles.  
As the sun warms, the heliosphere increases in size and density and gives more planetary protection from galactic cosmic rays, high energy charged particles from supernova exploding stars.  
Cosmic rays may be pushed away from the Earth by the electromagnetic fields of the sun and Earth or destroyed by charged particles in the heliosphere. When the sun is at its maximum heat in the  approximate 200-year cycle of total solar irradiance, cosmic rays are attenuated some 85 percent and Earth’s low wet clouds are at their minimum.
Cosmic rays penetrating our atmosphere cause troposphere ionization from which low wet clouds form; these reflect sun heat, so Earth’s oceans are warmed less. Sun energy reflection by clouds/ice is bond planetary albedo.  
Albedo is least when the sun is warmest (1990 AD climate optimum) and maximum when the sun is weakest (Mini Ice Ages) in the  approximate 200-year cycles of sun heat, TSI.  TSI variation is about one half of a percent. “Global warming” is dead until 2100 AD.
 Habibullo Abdussamatov, who has a doctor’s degree in astrophysics, is director of solar research at the Pulkovo Observatory in St. Petersburg and head of solar experiments on the International Space Station (Russian section). He says sun TSI maximized early in 1990s.  
Abdussamatov says sun heat (TSI) is decreasing like the Maunder Sun Spot Minimum (1645 AD to 1715 AD), which was the coldest MIA of the Little Ice Age (from 1280 AD to 1830 AD).  Now the Wolf Sunspot Minimum happened 1280 AD to 1350 AD and was characterized by cold, torrential rains, crop losses, starvation, freezings and killer diseases, including the Bubonic plague. Europe and China lost over half their populations. Probably other populations suffered likewise since this was global.  
 Abdussamatov says there is no evidence that people cause global warming.  Sun warming of the Earth and oceans always occurs before carbon dioxide increases, as shown by antarctic ice cores that recorded the last 800,000 years of warming, cooling and CO2 levels.  
The sun is the culprit, not CO2.  Abdussamatov says sun maximum TSI was 1366 watts per square meter of projected Earth area (which is 134.3 times 1,012 square miles), which gives 1.8345 times 1017 watts, 24/365. 
One watt-second equals 1 joule. There are 3.154 times 107 seconds per year year, so in one year the sun makes available 5.7854 times 1,024 qatt-seconds or joules of energy just outside our atmosphere.  
About 70 percent gets absorbed by the Earth/oceans. So about 4 times 1,024 joules warm the Earth/oceans each year.  A 1 megaton (of TNT) yield nuclear bomb produces 4.18 time 1,015 joules of energy.  Therefore, billion 1 megaton nuclear explosion equals a year’s worth of absorbed sun energy by Earth and oceans.  This is 2.74 million, 1 megaton nuclear explosions  PER DAY.
I am thankful the sun’s nuclear machine TSI was designed, built and regulated to one-half percent.
 Global warming is over.  Mini Ice Age 19 is at your door. What are you doing to save your family? 

John F. Cramer
Onalaska